Common fibers and special fibers in non-woven fabrics

Update:03 Sep 2021
Summary:

Commonly used fibers in non-woven fabrics 1. Polypropyl […]

Commonly used fibers in non-woven fabrics
1. Polypropylene fiber
It is made by melt-spinning polypropylene, also known as polypropylene, abbreviated as PP. It has a wide range of uses, such as geosynthetic materials, carpets, surgical gowns, surgical drapes, covering materials for baby diapers and women’s sanitary napkins, oil-absorbing materials, filtering materials, warming materials, sound insulation materials, wipers, etc.
2. Polyester fiber
The chemical name is polyethylene terephthalate, also known as polyester, abbreviated as PET or PES. Common cross-sections in non-woven fabrics are round, triangular, flat ribbon, hollow round, etc., which are usually used for insulating materials, thermal flakes, wall coverings, clothing lining base fabrics, roof waterproof materials, and geosynthetics.
3. polyamide fiber
Usually made by melt spinning of polyamide 6, also known as nylon fiber, abbreviated as PA. Mainly used for clothing lining base cloth, papermaking blanket, carpet, synthetic leather base cloth, polishing material, etc.
4.polyvinyl alcohol fiber
The polyvinyl formal fiber obtained by wet spinning is also called vinylon. It can be mixed with polypropylene fiber to produce geosynthetics, and water-soluble fiber can be used for embroidery base cloth, disposable materials, etc.
5. polyacrylonitrile fiber
Copolymerized by acrylonitrile and other monomers, wet spinning or dry spinning forming. Mainly used in the production of warm flakes, artificial fur, blankets, etc.
6. cotton fiber
Cotton fiber contains more impurities. After removing impurities and bleaching, it can be used for medical and health non-woven fabrics. The whiteness should be greater than 80%, and the residual sulfur content should be less than 8mg/100g.
7.viscose fiber
It is composed of cellulose and is formed by wet spinning, abbreviated as VIS. Viscose fiber has developed many new varieties, such as high crimp, high wet strength, high moisture absorption, etc. It is often used in medical and health materials, and mixed with other fibers for clothing lining base cloth, synthetic leather base cloth, food filter material, etc.
8. Hemp fiber
Ramie fiber is mainly used in the production of carpet base cloth, polishing materials, linings and sound insulation and heat insulation materials for construction.
9.wool fiber
It has natural curl, good elasticity, full hand feeling, good warmth retention, strong moisture absorption, soft luster, good dyeability, unique milling, but high price. Mainly used in the production of advanced carpets, papermaking blankets, etc.
10. Lyocell fiber
A new type of cellulose fiber produced by the solvent method. The cellulose is directly dissolved in an organic solvent, filtered, defoamed and then extruded and spun, and coagulated to become a cellulose fiber with a complete circular cross-section and smoothness. The surface structure has a high degree of polymerization. Lyocell fiber not only has the advantages of cellulose, such as moisture absorption, antistatic property and dyeability, but also has the strength and toughness of ordinary synthetic fiber. Its dry strength reaches 4.2cN/dtex, which is similar to ordinary polyester fiber, and its wet strength is only about 15% lower than the dry strength and still maintains high strength. The fiber does not pollute the environment during production, and is biodegradable by itself, so it can be called "green fiber".
11. Coir Fiber
The length is 15~33cm, the diameter is 0.05~0.3mm, the rigidity is good, and the elasticity is good. It can be processed into padding for sofas, car seat cushions, spring cushions, thick mattresses, and sports mats using acupuncture technology.
12. Silk
It has the advantages of good elongation, elasticity and hygroscopicity, fineness, softness, smoothness and good gloss. In the non-woven fabric industry, only its silk scraps are used to produce some special wet-laid and spunlace non-woven materials.
13. Waste fiber
Including the top rollers, roving heads, carded cotton cut, combed noil, short pile, noil and combed short wool from the wool spinning mill, ramie noil from the hemp spinning mill, and waste silk from the chemical fiber mill. Spinning fibers, etc., also include waste fibers formed by cloth blooming processing of clothing trimmings and old clothes. Waste fiber is mainly used in products such as fillers, packaging materials, sound and heat insulation materials, and padding.

Special fibers in non-woven fabrics
1. Soluble bonding fiber
The soluble bonding fiber will soften and melt in hot water or steam, and after drying, it will bond the fibers in the fiber web. This type of fiber is usually copolymerized by a variety of polymers. For example, the Efpakal L90 fiber developed in Japan is a copolymer of 50% polyvinyl chloride and 50% polyvinyl alcohol. Partially softened and bonded. The N40 fiber made by Enka in Germany is a copolyamide, which can be melted in superheated steam or dry hot air at 190°C.
2. Hot melt adhesive fiber
The synthetic fibers made by melt spinning can be used as hot-melt bonding fibers for the production of thermal bonding non-woven materials. However, some fibers have high melting points, high energy consumption in production, and large heat shrinkage, which are not suitable for hot-melt bonding fibers. As a result, some low-melting hot-melt bonding fibers have been developed at home and abroad.
Requirements for low-melting hot-melt bonding fibers:
(1) Low melting point
(2) Large softening temperature range
(3) Small thermal shrinkage